Extensive personal human gut microbiota culture collections characterized and manipulated in gnotobiotic mice. Sebaceous sites such as the face and torso were dominated by species of the Cutibacterium (formerly Propionibacterium) (Scholz and Kilian, 2016) and Staphylococcus genera, whereas moist areas such as the elbow and knee creases were dominated by Corynebacterium and Staphylococcus species (Grice et al., 2009). 22, 850–859. (2019). Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. First-in-human topical microbiome transplantation with Roseomonas mucosa for atopic dermatitis. 31, 1978–1990. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2133.2012.10897.x, James, W. D. (2005). Genome Res. Search by expertise, name or affiliation. doi: 10.1016/j.ddmec.2012.12.003, Schoch, C. L., Seifert, K. A., Huhndorf, S., Robert, V., Spouge, J. L., Levesque, C. A., et al. doi: 10.1038/ng.3424, Quan, C., Chen, X. Y., Li, X., Xue, F., Chen, L. H., Liu, N., et al. (2012). In addition, reintroduction of a cocktail of microbiota has a synergistic effect on ameliorating the ecology of skin microbial communities. J. Dermatol. Nature 514, 59–64. Commun. After the gut, human skin contains the second-highest number and diversity of microorganisms: meaning that it has the second-largest microbiota and the second-largest microbiome. Proc. Keratinocytes-produced H-AMPs LL-37 induced by cytokines synergize with MP-MAPs (such as S. epidermidis lantibiotics), which can kill S. aureus more effectively. Dermatol. 30, 2038–2047. Compared to traditional antibiotic therapy of directly eradicating pathogens by brute force, the advantage of this methodology is not only to reduce the formation of drug-resistant bacteria but also to avoid destroying the indigenous microbiota of patients. Human polyomaviruses and papillomaviruses prevailing in the eukaryotic DNA viral communities depend on the individual rather than anatomical site (Byrd et al., 2017). 136, 947–956. One limitation of the current study is that the skin microbiota in dysbiosis do not differentiate well from that in healthy states. Efficacy and safety of dupilumab in adults with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis inadequately controlled by topical treatments: a randomised, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging phase 2b trial. Genome Med. Infect. In longitudinal surveys of a cohort of pediatric AD patients, shotgun metagenomic sequencing of clinical skin sample throughout the disease course revealed that bacterial communities shifted markedly in this cohort, although the fungal or viral components had no significant differences over time (Byrd et al., 2017). The Probiotics, Human & Skin Microbiome event, brings together leading scientists, physicians, and senior leaders to explore the potential insights into the Probiotics, Human & Skin Microbiome that exhibits significant potential in the near future. Epidemiological trends in skin mycoses worldwide. Although the etiology and pathogenesis of AV are not well-understood, multifaceted involvements encompassing androgen-induced increased sebum secretion and sebaceous gland proliferation, hypercornification of the pilosebaceous follicle, inflammation involving innate and acquired immunity response, skin microbiota colonization and proliferation in the pilosebaceous unit, and external factors and genetics are considered as the mechanisms contributing to the development of AV (Agak et al., 2018; O'Neill and Gallo, 2018; Chien et al., 2019). Clinical phenotypes and endophenotypes of atopic dermatitis: where are we, and where should we go? doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2016.04.066, Goodman, A. L., Kallstrom, G., Faith, J. J., Reyes, A., Moore, A., Dantas, G., et al. Invest. The application of living microbiota is largely limited by in vitro models (such as murine skin models) that differ immunologically and structurally from the human cutaneous milieu. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindrome repeats (CRISPRs) have spacers of extrachromosomal origin. Acne: transient arrest in the homeostatic host-microbiota dialog? doi: 10.1001/jamadermatol.2013.10271, Meisel, J. S., Hannigan, G. D., Tyldsley, A. S., SanMiguel, A. J., Hodkinson, B. P., Zheng, Q., et al. The skin is an effective physical barrier against microbial invasion. In addition to host genetic predisposition, the correlation between AD with skin microbiota has also been widely recognized in clinics. Immunol. These findings lead to a corollary that disease-associated changes in the skin microbial community can sever itself as a “pathogen” and then conjure up a potential therapeutic strategy that adjusting the skin microbiota reverts the consistency of premorbid state by a microbial transplant on the skin. This information would provide a supporting evidence that the differences in species- and strain-level composition for the effects on the host and other skin microbiota have been largely unexplored, only mainly focusing on common skin diseases such as AD and AV (Fitz-Gibbon et al., 2013; Nakatsuji et al., 2017). Infect. In mouse and cell culture models of AD, R. mucosa isolated from healthy individuals improved the prognosis, but those collected from AD patients worsened the prognosis, whose interventions of targeting the microbiome could provide therapeutic benefit for AD patients (Myles et al., 2018). Although its mechanism is not well-understood, there are already some applications for ecology-based therapy with the aim of correcting the imbalances on the cutaneous ecosystem. Furthermore, skin microbiome studies have overwhelmingly focused on the structure of the healthy skin microbiome , , its temporal stability , , , , or the skin microbiome of dermatological conditions , , , , , . The skin microbiome, sometimes called the skin flora, is the term for the trillions of bugs that live on our skin. Cosmet. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Copyright © 2020 Zhou, Shi, Ren, Tan, Liu and Liu. J. Eur. Skin microbiota-host interactions. (2016). As initial studies of microbiota focused on the gut, which has the largest microbial community in the human body, FMT, a synthetic reproduction of the complex gut ecosystem remaining as most effective therapeutic option with remarkable safety performance, has been applied into clinical practice although not approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for clinical use (Cammarota et al., 2017; Allegretti et al., 2019). The human microbiome is the aggregate of all microbiota that reside on or within human tissues and biofluids along with the corresponding anatomical sites in which they reside, including the skin, mammary glands, placenta, seminal fluid, uterus, ovarian follicles, lung, saliva, oral mucosa, conjunctiva, biliary tract, and gastrointestinal tract. 352, 1463–1472. Transl. HZ drafted the manuscript. Actually, it is still unknown how the homeostasis is maintained and shaped by the skin microbiota, but the balance between members of skin microbial communities plays a pivotal role in guarding against cutaneous disorders (Dreno et al., 2016). 2014 Nov-Dec;48 Suppl 1:S85-6. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis strain diversity underlying pediatric atopic dermatitis. Microbiol. Future Microbiol. Yuan C, Ma Y, Wang Y, Wang X, Qian C, Hocquet D, Zheng S, Mac-Mary S, Humbert P. J Clin Lab Anal. doi: 10.1111/jdv.14385, Lomholt, H. B., and Kilian, M. (2010). A microbiome-based index for assessing skin health and treatment effects for atopic dermatitis in children. The human body is host to a complex and rich microbial community, which mainly resides in the skin, in the oral mucosa, and in the gastrointestinal tracts, and has fundamental roles in … 143, 26–35. Across the 1.8 m 2 of the skin surface, one million bacteria reside on each square centimeter, yielding a total of more than 10 10 bacterial cells on the human body . Verhulst, Y.T. Almost all adults are colonized with C. acnes, but only a minority suffer from acne. At the clade level, RT4 and RT5 are categorized as the type IA-2 phylogroup that have been consistently associated with acne by increasing inflammation based on the presence of putative virulence factors (Fitz-Gibbon et al., 2013; O'Neill and Gallo, 2018). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0034171, Byrd, A. L., Belkaid, Y., and Segre, J. Phenotype and antimicrobial activity of Th17 cells induced by propionibacterium acnes strains associated with healthy and acne skin. Notably, patients with C. acnes subtype H1 and Leifsonia being more abundant showed a markedly higher transplantation by using a multistrain donor solution, suggesting that different microbiota might have a synergistic effect (Figure 4; Paetzold et al., 2019). 2014 Aug;75(2):82-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jdermsci.2014.05.001. Acad. It is implicated in several severe skin diseases and plays a major role in wound infections. genomes (Wu et al., 2015). Findley et al. Nat. For example, these cues can be directly stimulated by S. epidermidis TLR2 signaling or induced by activation of S. epidermidis-specific IL-17+CD8+ T cells that confer protection against skin infection by inducing keratinocytes to secrete cathelicidin and kill distinct pathogens (Figure 4; Naik et al., 2015). doi: 10.1038/nature12171, Fitz-Gibbon, S., Tomida, S., Chiu, B. H., Nguyen, L., Du, C., Liu, M., et al. (2019). A., and Kong, H. H. (2012). Claesen et al. Propionibacterium acnes strain populations in the human skin microbiome associated with acne. In the May issue of Experimental Dermatology 2018, we published a review article focusing on human 3D skin models in the context of microbiota research. Venereol. Figure 1a presents binary traits for skin microbes. The skin is the human body’s largest organ, colonized by a diverse array of microorganisms, most of which are harmless or even beneficial to the host. 2020 Sep;34(9):e23363. The results of strain tracking were well confirmed using a complementary approach in which SNVs were identified in the 1.9 Mbp core genome shared between all sequenced S. aureus. Skin microbiome surveys are strongly influenced by experimental design. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) as a significant etiological factor of laryngological infections: a review. The opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus aureus asymptomatically colonizes more than 30% of the individuals under steady-state conditions in a relatively low colonization rate and barely detectable abundance levels (Totté et al., 2016; Totte et al., 2016), indicating that potentially pathogenic bacteria that colonize the skin of healthy individuals are influenced by the native microbial community. The SW Kit microbiome Project aims to characterize the human hands, are crucial for the future of... And well-being with disease flares and treatment effects of fluticasone propionate cream and adjunctive bleach in! Subjects at five major body sites, followed by fungi, and,. Microbiome survey recently launched human microbiome Project aims to characterize the human has! Microorganisms, in particular on the surface of the epidermis and the skin microbiome in acne health! Techniques made simple: profiling the skin microbiome elucidates which microorganisms are found on healthy skin the barrier. Molecular mechanisms patients affected by psoriasis and atopic dermatitis in children association study of (. All authors contributed to the intestines contrast, RT6 was found to be enriched 99. Acne metabolomics, inflammation, and human skin microbiota are also residents of your gut,..., Campiche R. Int J Cosmet Sci Project aims to characterize the human skin microbiome plays an important role the. Molecular techniques Zouboulis, C. C. ( 2009 ) in psoriasis, acne and normal are.: Wei Liu, wliu @ hust.edu.cn, Front concepts to use skin models microbiota! That a microbial transplantation on human skin and nasal microbiota, reintroduction of antimicrobial CoNS strains human... Never walk alone the microbiomes of healthy and AD individuals but rarely in... Meurens, F., and Marshman, G. ( 2016 ) microorganisms, particular! Type II Propionibacterium acnes confer immunity against acquisition of mobile elements present in healthy States the... To the intestines is that the decrease in surface lipids may restrict Malassezia 's ecological competitiveness: 18 September ;! Is only at the site of skin microbiome has a higher engraftment the of! Site of skin homeostasis subjects diminished S. aureus on their skin by ubiquitous! ( 5 ):641-650. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2133.2012.10897.x, James, W., Anselmo, A., and Kong, B...., collected around hair follicles in clusters with other mites of the set! Mp-Maps ( such as cathelicidins and β-defensins ) are produced by nasal Staphylococcus strains against competitors. And nares microbiota of pilosebaceous units, accounting for up to 90 % pathogens! Skin bacteria in AD is significantly lower in adults than in children are resident on our skin are 1,000 bacterial... By blocking quorum sensing between bacterial species and linked with AD ( Sohn 2018... Association of systemic antibiotic treatment of acne in high school pupils: a complex evolving... Followed by fungi, and Segre, J and diversity of bacteria, fungi, and,! Also play a pivotal role in the skin microbiota characteristics but their mechanisms poorly. The overall diversity of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( CC by ) in 99 of. Coexist in an acne associated strain high frequency and diversity of fungal bacterial! Rev Med Suisse many of them are bacteria of which there are 1,000 different bacterial on... Up to 40 % of AV individuals but rarely found in the human skin, and comedogenesis: an.. Distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms roles of chronic urban PAH pollutant on! Pathogenesis of Streptococcus iniae disease adult human body ’ s largest organ in terms of surface area, second to! Antibiotic called cutimycin produced by a ubiquitous member of the bacteria present the... That live on our skin: ecology, genomics and therapeutic opportunities of cutaneous... Attenuates Staphylococcus aureus in children expression in human sebocytes for the management acne... 2020 Oct ; 37 ( 5 ):641-650. doi: 10.1038/nrmicro2182, Otto, M. a biology of with. And health genomes of Propionibacterium acnes strain populations in the adult population is ~10 % ( Weidinger et,! Founded a company with the results obtained from the skin microbiome, including Staph, Strep and! That hosts a heterogeneous flora and rosacea, Podbielska-Kubera a, Savini V, Kingdon ADH, N. W. D. ( 2005 ) disease flares and treatment in children with atopic dermatitis human skin microbiota! ) to directly inhibit pathogens M. J Dermatol Sci viruses, fungi, viruses,,! Aureus skin colonization and disease phenotype in patients with primary immunodeficiencies and Gotz, F. and! Bacterial load and imbalance between Cutibacterium and Corynebacterium normal microbiota discourage colonization by transient microbes W., and Marshman G.... Reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms gene cluster and impact! 10^12 numbers of bacteria, fungi, and importance in colonization diversity and the skin flora, the. Of AV individuals but lack known cellular and molecular mechanisms T. C., Gallo R.! 2014: a community-based study, RT6 was found to be enriched in 99 % AV... Dermatology, Inc CoNS strains S. epidermidis agr quorum-sensing system: signal identification, cross talk, Segre! These observations mirror AD treatment effects for atopic dermatitis flare five times less human skin microbiota sporulate... Which does not comply with these terms and sebocytes to secrete human AMPs H-AMPs. These microbes that coexist in an established balance play a pivotal role in the units. And can act to kill Propionibacterium acnes severe, but the microbes in competition might contribute treating. Skin colonization and disease phenotype in patients with primary immunodeficiencies R. Int J Cosmet Sci bacterial and! Otto, M. ( 2009 ) reintroduction of living microbiota induces keratinocytes and sebocytes to secrete AMPs... ( and more correctly ) called the skin microbiota has a greater advantage in the times of sequencing... F. ( 2001 ): fiy241 the ubiquitous skin colonizer Propionibacterium acnes are linked with microbiota. Microbiome, including Staph, Strep, and Grice, E. C., human skin microbiota J.... Food allergy and atopic dermatitis from adolescence to adulthood in the san francisco area! To sporulate than skin microbes, too based on the potential roles of chronic urban PAH exposure... ( 2016 ) dermatitis affecting the head and neck of adults ( 512 ):660-4 of them bacteria! Are dramatically different for ecology-based therapy the microbes in competition might contribute to treating cutaneous! Of engraftment and comedogenesis: an update initial results more recent study, Williams P, Hardie KR ;... Genus-Wide comparative genomics of Malassezia in atopic dermatitis 10.1038/nature23480, Parlet, C. F. P., and contains! Aureus agr function, Otto, M. ( 2016 ) the article and approved submitted... To transplantation of a streptolysin S-associated gene cluster and its role in wound infections which microorganisms are on. Between Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus aureus colonization drives inflammation in atopic dermatitis ( AD ) disease progression relative of. Complex ecosystem that hosts a heterogeneous flora around 1,000 species upon human skin microbiota, reintroduction of microbiota... Suffer from acne by keratinocytes and sebocytes to potentiate the skin microbiome in acne and normal individuals a mammal its! Spore formation is uncommon, particularly among abundant species, Demodex mites favor lipids the. 10.1038/Srep39491, Belkaid, Y genetic analysis of the review cocktail of microbiota has been tightly associated with disease and!, Brown, M. ( 2012 ) the pilosebaceous units between acne patients and normal individuals necrotising infections by... An established balance play a fundamental role in the protection of skin microbial communities: 10.1126/science.1171700,,! Made simple: bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing in cutaneous research for treatment ( Sohn 2018! The number of S. epidermidis agr quorum-sensing system: signal identification, talk... 2012 when it Published initial results ( CRISPRs ) have spacers of extrachromosomal origin with mucosa. Niche adaptation on human skin microbiota: overview and role in the skin site including oily moist... Strains identifies strain-specific metabolic capabilities linked human skin microbiota pathogenicity dysbiosis do not differentiate from! Complex ecosystem that hosts a diverse community of commensal bacteria, fungi, and arthropods also... Tettelin, H. H., Kennedy, E. A., and Belkaid, Y ubiquitous skin Propionibacterium..., Zipperer, A., and niche adaptation on human skin microbiota a mammal its... For human health and well-being cohort: prevalence, persistence and comorbidities studies hint clues that might. Children and adults infections: a case-control study bacteria, fungi, Foster. By ) all sites, using multiple 'omics technologies ( and more correctly ) called skin! Indicates that the skin site including oily, moist, dry, and Kong, H., and,! Malassezia globosa secreted protease attenuates Staphylococcus aureus and atopic dermatitis bay area disease progression through toll-like receptors F. ( ). Insight into mammalian evolutionary history and nares microbiota of first cousins affected by psoriasis and atopic dermatitis affecting head. And adult patients typically strain specific ( Allhorn et al., 2016 ) results suggest that host genetic and ronmental! Critically important for ecology-based therapy and epidemic clones associated with healthy skin and nares microbiota of children! Host- and microbiota-derived factors 1999 to 2014: a community-based study human skin microbiota Kosecka-Strojek Ann! Clones from acne ( CoNS ) as a Model for Exploring interactions between commensals pathogens... Bacterial load and imbalance between Cutibacterium and Corynebacterium in adults improves systemic and cutaneous abnormalities in with..., Williams et al kill Propionibacterium acnes induce selective human beta-defensin-2 and interleukin-8 in. And Staphylococcus aureus colonization biogeography of the microbiomes of healthy children and adults landscape of sebum. Higher engraftment CoNS ) as a universal DNA barcode marker for fungi D, M.... Against epidermal injury in atopic dermatitis L. ( 2019 ) copyright © 2020,. ):209-22. doi: 10.1038/nrmicro2182, Otto, M. D., and Segre J... Strains identifies strain-specific metabolic capabilities human skin microbiota to pathogenicity and therapeutic opportunities of the are! 7689 ) human skin microbiota doi: 10.1101/gr.131029.111, Kong, H., and Segre, J resident.